Ayaz-Kala: ancient fortress, that won time

Without false modesty, this fortress, built in the desert, can be attributed to the list of the most majestic and important fortification buildings of Ancient Khorezm. Numerous legends suggest that the fortress got its name thanks to the famous warrior Ayaz -Ayaz. It is believed that he not only fought for justice, but also ventured to win the hand and heart of the leader of the Amazons.


The history of the construction of the fortress is full of important events


The process of construction of the fortress began in the second century AD, when these lands were under the power of the Kushan Empire. Upon completion of construction, the fortress became part of the border, stretching from the eastern to the western border of the state. A distinctive feature of all the castles belonging to the complex is their location.


Archaeologists believe that all the fortifications were erected deliberately at a distance line of sight of each other, in order to facilitate the transmission of signals or other important information, such as the imminent approach of enemy troops.


Another important difference of Ayaz-Kala is the presence of a large rural settlement around it, which had no special fortifications. This neighborhood was very unusual for the architectural features of the ancient Khorezm. Each farmhouse in the area of ​​the fortress had a relatively small brick wall that marked the boundary of the site. The average home in this village had about a dozen rooms, which in itself was an important social factor. It is believed that in those times on the agenda was the issue of separation of one family from another.


Among all the structures found by archaeologists are particularly noteworthy three fortifications:


  • Ayaz 3 – this fortress is characterized by having a very large courtyard that was completely protected by huge watchtowers and a labyrinth near the gate. On both sides of the building there were a special home with forty rooms separated by corridors;
  • Ayaz 2 – a fortress, erected in the period of the Kushan Empire, was repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt again by the Afrigids in the fifth and sixth centuries AD;
  • Ayaz 1 – is characterized by semi-circular towers. The fortress is situated on a cliff of a massive plateau. Ayaz 1 has multiple galleries of an arched shape and a unique well, which was cut through the rock. In the north-eastern part of the complex you can find the ruins of a fortification – the tower, which served as a reliable protection to the locals.


Today, we can confidently say that only good fortune helped discover the remains of the complex. For many centuries, sand regularly kept the quiet of the fortress. Today, any tourist who wants to literally touch the Ayaz-Kala, where many centuries ago was located the frontier of the Kushans, can do it.