History of Almaty

The capital of tourism in Kazakhstan, now bright metropolis, this city was once a small settlement. Reserved flight Uzbek airlines, you can be in the heart of Central Asian culture, to see the incredible beauty. Although the city itself as a formal settlement, appeared about 150 years ago, people lived here long before that. Before the river Small Almaty grew fortress, which appeared in many art paintings, and became the ancestor of the current city, there lived many nations and tribes, that including built and its fortifications. Tourism in Kazakhstan developed by the same rules as that of tourism in Uzbekistan , offering scenic beauty and rich historical heritage.


According to scientists, the first settlers came here towards the end of the Bronze Age, a period which coincided with the tenth and ninth century BC. These people have grown useful crops and livestock, and lived mainly tribes. Small villages, where houses were built mostly of clay, were in the territory, which is now occupied by the modern northern suburbs of Almaty. Later, these peaceful tribes were driven from their homes had come Sakas. Behind them came after nation Usuns. Scientists have been able to find out about their longer life, culture and way of life, as the location of settlements and Usuns Saxons left a lot of burial mounds, containing, in particular, and various exhibits. Several mounds preserved in the heart of Almaty, in the old town. To explore the beauty, you just find a place in one of the hotels in Kazakhstan, located nearby.


The most famous of the mound found here – a Issyk, owned by the famous Saku is likely the king or queen. It was discovered during excavations in 1969. Scientists dated it about the fifth or fourth century BC. Under the layer of earth deceased soldier lying for years, whose posthumous journey dressed in clothes consisting exclusively of gold plates. His head was adorned with a rich helmet, which was crowned with figures of winged horses. These images are designated the Sun God. Scientists have figured out that a warrior was buried, as in the next world he was accompanied by a long sword and a dagger. In the mound, in addition to a fully dressed in shining armor of a soldier, lay still and all kinds of utensils. This clay jars, precious jugs made ​​of silver and bronze, wooden utensils, and one of the main findings, a beautiful silver bowl decorated with a mysterious inscription, written out 26 mysterious characters. In 1974, the first soldier went a long journey and was able to win many delights of the world public. At the Leipzig Fair “golden man” emerged as one of the most valuable and prominent representatives of the Kazakh Soviet Republic. Moreover, that Kazakhstan had not demonstrated such complete rest of the world. During vacation in Uzbekistan, you will not see these beauties.


When it became clear that the land holds many archaeological treasures, the scientific excavations go regularly. In the late thirties of the last century Dublitsky researcher discovered hidden under a veil of ancient layers of soil settlement, which was built sometime in the period from the tenth to the thirteenth century. It may not even be a peaceful village, but a real fortress, because all the buildings were placed for the protection of rectangular clay wall, in every corner of which rises a circular tower that housed a clock. Inside the fortifications, scientists were able to find many traces of tribal life. This iron knife, and long iron nails, as well as pottery and stone beads collected from red and transparent gems. Taking into account the results of bone, lived here, and pets near the owners. And in one of the houses we were even able to find the remains of the stone fireplace, beside which lay forgotten silver flask on which the sun was depicted. Apparently, at that time already cooked using the oven, here and found fragments of clay tandoor.


Until now, the unsolved mystery of one of the most exciting finds. During the archaeological excavations of the late 19th century academician Bartold was able to discover an ancient settlement. It was studied for decades, and only recently there are two amazing discoveries have been found. This unique silver coins, which partly erased inscription, which can be printed to consider that the dirham was forged in a certain city. City written very illegibly as ‘Al … um … that’ from what scientists have concluded that it is referred to Almaty. And this, in turn, is a very clear indication of what the city with the same name already existed here in the thirteenth century. Given the form of coins and the method of minting coins were born in one of the oldest cities in Central Asia at the turn of 13-15 centuries. To see the artifacts, it is sufficient to find the cheapest tour in the southern capital of Kazakhstan.


Many archaeological finds have been discovered quite by accident. Most of them belong to the Saka tribes. Among such treasures include a variety of bronze lamps, jars, and various utensils. However, not all masterpieces were found at home, for example, Semirechye altar where sacrifices were offered, the fate of the will was in the Hermitage. Since it found itself before the October Revolution, he was sent to the museum of the then capital of the Russian Empire. The altar is decorated with figures of twenty-five winged snow leopard. The structure itself is a tray standing evenly on four tiny feet.


In the second half of the twentieth century, when the city is actively built, in the vast city’s botanical gardens was found many items belonging to tribes Usuns. Rest in Uzbekistan, for example, it does not give an opportunity to see all this. Amazing tribe Usuns that came from somewhere in the territory of present-day China, it was the red-haired people with blue eyes, they clearly stood out against all the inhabitants of Asia steel. Tribes established quite extensive state, whose capital was located at Lake Issyk-Kul. In society there is a clear hierarchy, implies the existence of rulers, warriors and ordinary landowners. Usuns as a result were conquered by the Chinese. However, on the ground of their cities left a number of different artifacts. The most beautiful finds true-glazed ceramics and various ornaments. The most famous is considered “Kargaly diadem”.


This archaeological excavations that took place here over a century, helped to create a more or less accurate history of Almaty, with the appearance of the first people here. It was found here and the various findings, both underground and under water, and in local caves. Many archaeologists have studied not only find, but also the origins of Buddhism and Christianity.


By studying all the artifacts found, as well as exploring the documentary sources, scientists have concluded that a settlement on the site of the modern city appeared in the tenth century BC, and many archaeologists have suspected that a metropolis worn current name back in the days when there was a small village. The first tribes arrived here in the Bronze Age.


Based on the data contained in the written sources, coins and other archaeological sources, we can say with confidence that the modern city of Almaty emerged under the same name in the X – XI centuries. A Almaty area was inhabited by nomadic tribes in the Bronze Age.


The history of the modern settlement of Almaty started the hot summer 1853, when the government curb the expedition of the Russian Empire, which was composed of a military unit under the command of Major, leaving behind the village to dig and the beginning of a long, full of fascinating events of the journey to the Central Tien Shan. Their way lay through a desert scorched hot sun of the earth, wild mountain streams and through the Turgen Gorge. The aim of the expedition was to establish diplomatic and trade relations with the peoples who inhabited these lands. The result of the campaign was to be the signing of various agreements important for Russia, as well as the introduction of the empire in alliance with these people.


Intrigues in this amazing journey there – the perfect conclusion of the negotiations has allowed the Russian representatives to return to the area next year. And when spring came into its own, painted in bright colors slopes of the mountains, the valley seemed a squadron of hussars, led by Lieutenant Glahirinym. The expedition began with a study of the Trans-Ili Alatau, it has built up through the water streams and Kurt Shi bridges. The next challenge was the construction of the fortress near the river Small Almaty.


Fortress construction project was drafted and received the highest approval, the benefit of that worked on it the most famous architects of the empire, already engaged in designing fortresses. A large team of builders, engineers and surveyors examined all the cross land and find the ideal point for the construction of fortifications. What was originally a fortress featured other similar settlements, it is that the Emperor Nicholas I ordered not to send the exiles here – so the city was open to free people only. When all the bureaucratic construction went so quickly have been overcome, that amazed even the journalists who arrived at the place. Originally a fortress called the Trans-Ili, but after it was christened Werne. Five years after the start of construction in the settlement arrived Golubev, a well-known astronomer and surveyor who helped cause and the settlement itself and another 17 important geographical points. By this time, the city has lived for more than five thousand inhabitants, was carried out rapid construction throughout, as well as the assimilation of the surrounding land. Ebullient rapid pot growing populations, to failure filled with people scurrying literally transformed almost beyond recognition desert valley for several years. The local region has hitherto not seen such a large number of settlers, previously lived here only nomadic tribes. As noted by a visiting journalist soon faithful must become one of the largest cities, compared with that not only Siberia, but also major European settlement may fade.


The Right was not only fortifications and space for future settlements. It is from here were to start research expedition, wearing not only scientific but also practical purpose. Due to the base Faithful scientists were able to study the traditions, relationships within the tribe, as well as the lifestyle of the people who lived in the region of the Tien Shan. These works are carried out well-known researcher Ciocan Valikhanov. By region Semirechye carried out more than one trip. Subsequent generations were able to learn the details of these trips, because Ciocan Valikhanov kept a detailed diary, where he not only recorded his observations and learn everything, but left alive and detailed watercolor sketches telling about the natural beauty and features the life of local tribes. In addition to the well-known researcher Valikhanova local land at different times studied Semenov-Tyan-Shan and Nikolai Przewalski, who were interested not so much who lived on these lands people how rich and hitherto undiscovered flora and fauna. A well-known cartographers exploring the surrounding area, in order to put the brightest objects in the map. Thus it was prepared a detailed map of the Trans-Ili Alatau.


The new town attracted not only known scientists, and not so famous adventurers and artists, because nothing affects the inspiration so much as a brand new life, bubbling over with energy and pressure. Arrived at the expanse of the settlement artists Znamenskii Kosharov and reflected on his canvases vivid and immediate picture of the new and amazing city. Above all, the three famous paintings depicting the main square, dominated by a small church, built of wood. This first church consecrated in 1858, Senior Priest Evtikhii Vysheslavsky.


Active and full of energy the inhabitants of the city with vigor and enthusiasm are taken for improvement of the city. On the streets there are weather stations and organizations seismologists. And to the lives of local citizens was more varied and interesting, there were built museums and libraries, health services.


Fourteen years after the first expedition Faithful finally received city status. In addition to this faithful awarded the title Semirechensk center area, located in the Turkestan region. And after ten, it was decided to organize the local Duma, and held its first elections in the history of the Faithful. Unanimously to be the first mayor chosen Zenkova. This extraordinary man, who managed to seem all the science and activities such as painting, architecture, sculpture and music, appeared in the city back in 1867. Zenkov including those involved in thinking through the first city plan and closely supervise the construction operations.