Pamir it is not simple mountains, these are high mountains. The highest top of Pamir reaches 7499 metres above sea level, and the pass Ak-baytal on road Osh – Khorog is located at height of 4655 metres. For comparison we will tell that the highest point of mountainous Armenia – mountain Aragats reaches only 4090 metres. But Aragats without climbing preparation and equipment you will not climb up, and through Ak-baytal the road on which cars go is laid. Ninety three percent of territory of Tajikistan is occupied by mountains so it would be just right to give more geographical, than administrative borders of the country. From Pamir – « world Roofs » the highest in the world ranges disperse, including Karakorum and the Himalayas in the south, Hindu Kush in the west and Tien Shan in the northeast. And frontiers separate Tajikistan from Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and China. Tajikistan is one of the oldest states of the world. Its history is closely connected with history of neighbouring countries of the Central Asia. In territory of modern Tajikistan, according to scientists, in the middle of II millenium B.C. the semilegendary Ariana occupied by Aryans settled down. These earths were included into the most ancient states of Sogdianas and Bactria. In VI century B.C. the country has been grasped by power of Ahemenids. However after two centuries the Persian state has fallen under blows of armies of Alexander the Great. And today in high-mountainous Tadjik kishlaks it is possible to meet blue-eyed and fair-haired inhabitants – descendants of Macedonian soldiers. The Greek-Baktr kingdom which has arisen on ruins of empire of Alexander the Great, has been subdued by a tribe of tohars, formed on territory of Tajikistan, the state of Toharistan. In I century B.C. Toharistan was a part of a powerful Kushansky kingdom, and after its disintegration in III century Sogdiana and Bactria have passed to the power of Sasanids, then Turkic kaganate. On these earths a Lazurit way, on which this valuable stone from Badahshan was delivered to Persia, Egypt and India, layed a millenium ago. Here sites of the Great silk way passed. One of caravan roads conducted from Kashgar through mountains Karakorum in Hodzhent and Pendzhikent and further to Fergana valley and Samarkand. Another – through Regar to ancient Termez and Balh. In the beginning of VIII century an army of the Arabian Caliph under leadership of Kutejbu ibn Muslim have won Sogd. Arabs have eradicated zoroastrism and the Buddhism, occurring among local population, and have made Islam – the state religion, and Sogd language has been forced out by language – Dari.
Time has kept some monuments of history and culture of Tajikistan of the pre-Islamic period. Near one of the most ancient cities of the Central Asia of Ur-tyube it is possible to see ruins of zoroastrism temple of fire of Ak-Tepa, and in a site of ancient settlement of Adzhin-Tepe – the rests of Buddhist monasteries of VII century. In three kilometres from settlement Hayrabad in lock ruins on a grief Mug in 1933 the documents written on Sogdian language have been found out.
In Pyandzhikent in the middle of the XX-th century archeologists have opened a complex of the palace and temple constructions concerning to VII – to the beginning of VIII centuries. On walls of buildings the unique lists representing scenes of feasts of Sogd nobility, the mythological plots connected with a cult of legendary Siyavush and the legend on Rustam – the hero of the national epos the Shah-name have remained.
In IX century Tajikistan became a state Tahiridov part, then has undergone to Genghis Khan invasion, and in XIV century has entered into empire Temura. In the beginning of a XIX-th century the territory of Tajikistan has been divided between Bukhara emirate and Kokandsky khanate, and after some tens years Tajikistan has been attached to the Russian empire.
After October revolution in Russia and civil war in 1924 has been formed Tadjik ASSR, and in 1929 the Tadjik Soviet Socialist Republic as a part of the USSR is created. In September, 1991 independence of the country is proclaimed.
In Tajikistan ancient cities and monuments of Islamic architecture have remained many. In twenty kilometres from Pendzhikent there is the mausoleum of Muhammada Bashoro built in XI century. In the city of Hodzhente, under the legend based by Alexander the Great, in XI century of veins the sacred person sheikh Muslihiddin. In 1394 under Amir Temura’s instructions over its tomb the mausoleum, and nearby – medrese and a cathedral mosque has been erected.
The Gissarsky valley, among them medrese, the mausoleum of Mahdumi Azam, a mosque Sangin and the Gissarsky fortress, constructed in XVI century is rich with historical monuments.
Capital of Tajikistan the city of Dushanbe is formed in 1924 as a result of merge of three kishlaks and less than for hundred years the person has turned to the modern arranged well city with the population in a half-million. In a city eight high schools, including the university, five theatres, five museums, a philharmonic society, a film studio, circus.
Life at different levels, life on a vertical leaves traces on all aspects of activity of people. Speak, Pamir – a world Roof. Here the highest in the Central Asia mountains, the deepest gorges, the most powerful glaciers. Here above, than in other places, people lodge and mountain agriculture gets. pamirians joke that they live most close to heavens.
Conditions here the severe. And if in fertile valleys grow up grapes and a fine-fibered cotton on rare mountain sites – dashts, suitable for agriculture, sow early ripening varieties of a rye, barley, peas. And soil on dashts deliver baskets. Here, on rags of pastures, thousand yaks are grazed. They are unpretentious, cold-resistant », all year long spend open-air.
Pamir – the majestic centre of a modern freezing. Over thousand glaciers occupy the space of eight thousand square kilometres. Most known of them in length of 77 kilometres bears a name of Fedchenko. Glaciers and the rivers with which they feed, can become a perennial spring for country development. On stocks of hydroresources Tajikistan takes a leading place in region. Pride of Tajikistan – Nureksky HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION capacity of 2,7 million the watt, bridled wild Vakhsh. And after it there is even more powerful Rogunsky HYDROELECTRIC POWER STATION, the mightiest in the Central Asia.
Among mountains lakes become blue. Most remarkable of them Astrakhan fur – the Black lake stretched at height about four thousand of metres, above well-known Titikaki in the Andes. But, perhaps, among natural sights the first place occupies Sarezsky lake. In 1911 as a result of earthquake in a valley of Murghab has failed six billions tons of stones. Before a dam in height in hundreds metres the lake which in three years has absorbed a narrow valley throughout seventy kilometres began to collect. And after ten years its mirror was stabilised on a mark of 3239 metres. Sarezsky lake and the blockage which has generated it – a rare monument of geological accident of the world scale which has arisen in the face of the person. And appointment to it excites each traveller to whom has had the luck to reach to him on mountain road or by the helicopter.
In one of Pamir gorges there is « a ruby mountain » Kuhi-Lal. Lalami, as well as sapphires, in olden time named rubies which extract now by means of modern mechanisms. And in a valley of Shahdary deposits of « a heavenly stone » lazurite are glorified. The mine is located at height of five kilometres, and the extracted lazurite take out by helicopters.
Khorog decorated with poplars – the centre of mountain-Badahshansky autonomous region is located at height of 2200 metres. And on hundred metres above over Khorog the most high-mountainous is created in the world a botanical garden. Between Khorog and Dushanbe is laid the Pamir path on a place old caravan roads. Earlier this way occupied from travellers about forty days, and now the plane overcomes it for forty five minutes. However, this way is connected with exciting sensations when the crew should repeat whimsical bends of gorges, especially before decrease in Khorog. The most complicated on a profile still has also a highway, with eleven passes both dizzy streamers and eaves so ancient inscriptions on rocks « the Traveller are involuntarily remembered, be careful! You here as tear on an eyelash ».
Tajikistan today – the secular sovereign social lawful state going on a democratic way. Tajikistan – young republic. Victor Hugo spoke: « Great cathedrals, as well as great mountains, – creations of centuries ». And ahead at the country – centuries …