To the north-east of Bayramali and 30 km east of Mary are the ruins of the ancient city of Merv. Mention of these populated lands belong to the II millennium BC The ancient Greek historian Strabo described the fertile oasis of Margiana. There exists a developed system of irrigation canals connected with the river Murghab. In addition to agriculture and animal husbandry, the edge enriched shopping Silk Road. Practically in all ages the city had important economic and administrative importance. The greatest flowering of Merv begins in the 11th century under the Seljuks and continues as part of Khorezm state. However, in 1220-ies of the metropolis it was destroyed by the Mongols. Desolation lasted until the 16th century. Timurids restored irrigation canals, but that was not that great city.
The oldest part of the citadel of Merv is Erk Kala (approximately 20 hectares). It was the residence of the ruler, and built to his suite. Around Erk Kala high defensing tower walls. Even now in a dilapidated condition they reach 29 meters. The only gates provided descend on the town square. Then is the turn of residential areas. This part of the settlement called Gyaur-Kala, it took about 300 hectares. Around there was a wall with fortifications and towers. In the city were three entrance gates. In our time of Gyaur Kala remained only the ruins of two-storey houses nobles, as well as the ruins of the Christian and Buddhist temples.
In the 11th century under the Seljuk ruler Malik Shah opposite Gyaur Kala, on the other side of the canal, built a fortified city, Sultan Kala. He defended the moat and raw fortification. Area fort exceed 400 hectares. In the north-eastern region, on a hill, the citadel housed Shahriyar Ark. It was the Shah’s palace, the barracks, the home court and the tomb of Sultan Sanjar.
At a distance of 25 km from Cala Gyaur he heaved one more, now lost, fortress – Durnali. Its age is 2000 years. Citadel Durnali is a rectangle of length 180 and 160 meters in width. She served as a protection to citizens living under the fortress walls.
Moving away from the 2 km Durnali can stumble upon Akuyli-Koushuk ruins (9-13 cc.). Once it is a two-storey castle local dignitary. In the center are stood two tiers of Hall windows. The two sides of it in the first and second floor are drawn 5 rooms for various purposes.
A similar structure is located 7 km north of Gyaur-Kala, the ruins of a two-storey manor dekhkan (9-13 cc.). The first floor is almost not survived, but on the second there were only wavy tumbledown walls.
At a distance of 32 km from Cala Gyaur, the remains of the once majestic castle Gobekli early parthian period. If you go 60 km north of Mary, we can see the skeleton of the settlement Gonur Depe III millennium BC Archaeological excavations under the direction of V.Sarianidi opened the world a magnificent example of the culture of the Bronze Age.