This historical and cultural complex is unique not only because of its architectural and historical features, but also because of the place of its location. Kara-Kamar, whose age is more than 2 millennia, in the literal sense, was dug out in the rock on the border between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.


Archaeologists managed to find a lot of unique artifacts


For the first time the complex caught the eyes of scientists only in mid-1857s, when a well-known at that time researcher and ethnographer N. Maiev was doing some reconnaissance of Bukhara roads. Today we can say with confidence that the overall planning of mining facilities of this complex is truly unique. Nowhere else in the East even a little similar to the Kara-Kamar structure can be found. Today scientists say, they have discovered the following premises:

  1. 3 spacious rooms;
  2. Premises for the clergy and parishioners;
  3. A courtyard of a rectangular form with an area exceeding two hundred square meters, and a height of ten meters.


Upon closer inspection you can see that the protruding end of the Kara Kamar literally hangs over the mountain peaks. This is explained by many historians as the desire of architects of that time to make the overall layout of the complex with the surrounding landscape.


The inner part of the complex was rich in various written evidence created in different languages:

  • Greek;
  • Arabic;
  • The Bactrian;
  • Latin and so on


The evidence in the Latin language became a sensation in the scientific community. One should understand that this complex was located at a distance of several thousand kilometers from the ancient Rome, where traditionally Latin was used, so the detection of plaques with 300-line texts in Latin literally has overturned the pre-existing scientific concepts. In those Latin texts Guy Rex and the name of one of the legions of the Roman Empire- «Apolinaris» were mentioned;


Undetermined stages in the history of the complex


The discovery of signs in Latin caused scientists to deeper dive into the study of all the events associated with this complex. Historians managed to establish that the abovementioned Roman legion was established by the order of Caesar in 53 BC. Sixteen years later, it went to the Parthian campaign, which led to the complete destruction of the entire Roman army.


It is believed Parthian ruler Orod II visited the captured Roman soldiers, who were detained on the territory of the complex of Kara-Kamara. The king then, exerting his great mercy to Augustus, in 20 BC, sent all the Roman prisoners to their historical homeland. This fact made a history as the first and only time in history, when the captured Roman soldiers were sent back home alive by the enemy. The second hypothesis suggests that said Guy Rex was a direct participant of one of the diplomatic or trade campaigns of the Romans to these lands.


Some scientists draw analogies between this structure and the complex of caves, founded by the adepts of Mitra (a syncretic religion, which appeared in the first century AD). It first appeared among the warriors of ancient Rome, and then spread from Iran to the British Isles.