Madrasah and Minaret of Bikazhan-Bika

This Historical and cultural complex was established in the immediate vicinity of the well-known in the country ShoKalyandar Bobo. Today, this object includes several buildings:

• A madrasa;

• A minaret;

• A mosque.


Numerous legends tell that ShoKalyanzhar Bobo was a shah, who decided to give up power in favor of wandering. He chose the fate of a wandering dervish, which the word “Kalyandar” means. He came to the city of Khiva in the company of two friends who took the decision to stay here together. After ShoKalyandar Bobo passed away over his final resting place the followers built a great mausoleum.


The process of building was surrounded by a lot of problems


Numerous historical artifacts suggest that the process of the construction of the tomb was started in the mid-sixteenth century. In 1894 a mosque, madrassah and minaret were built around it. Master Abulla was chosen as an architect and main builder. The initiator of the construction of minarets and madrasa was Bikadzhan-Bika, the sister of Muhammad Rahimhani II Feruz.


Only relatively recently, historians have established that the construction process was launched without authorization. When Khan learned of this unprecedented audacity at that time, he gave an order to immediately stop the construction, which had not been properly coordinated with him. Over time, the khan changed his righteous anger at the great mercy and ordered to continue the construction, but here is another problem intervened. Unfortunately, Mohammed Rahimkhan Feruz II did not have enough funds to continue the construction. The way out of this situation was that, he ordered two contractors to find the required amount, which was promptly done.


The architectural features of the complex


The entire building has a clear orientation in the space from the south to the north. The central part of the architectural complex is a square shaped madrasa, whose height did not exceed 1 floor. Entrance of the madrasa is well-marked asymmetrical, and the entrance was framed by a 3-domed lobby. There are certain differences between the mosque and the classroom-darshana:

1. The building of the mosque was covered with huge domes of a spherical form;

2. The classroom –darshana used roof slabs as a conventional girder;

3. The front side is closer to the main facade;

4. Hujras (cells) have a classic rectangular shape;

5. During the construction of hujras special arches – „Balkhi“ were used;

6. The main facade of the complex directed due north, was built on an individual project.


Almost in front of the facade of the building there is a main minaret. Strictly on the west side (with the respect to the minaret) there is a service extension, characterized by roof slabs of flat nature. There is a theory that there could be a prayer hall that was used by madrasa students and residents of nearby houses.


The study of surviving evidence revealed that the upper part of the minaret was much less than the lower. The barrel itself was decorated with the help of multiple belts that had the form of multiple diamond shapes. The upper part of the minaret is decorated with a 3-row „Sharafa“ made of bricks.


Researchers believe that ShoKalyandar Bobo was originally built in a 3-chamber execution, with several tombs and a visiting place ziyaratkhana, which has survived till our time.