Archaeology of Uzbekistan
The protohistory of Uzbekistan initiates in the stone Age in accordance with evident proofs of human existance. Yet, this age is known as Paleolith. Rare types of petroglyphic inscriptions, entombments, and transient settlements spoted by archeologians, are too obvious and acknowledged as a fact. Central Asia travel agency provides full data on this subject and resumes historical argument.
The first traces of antique inhabitans were detected in Southern Uzbekistan in 1931. In 1938, exploring the area of Surkhandaria region, archeologians encountered their cave habitation and relics of a teenager about 10 years old and a grown up Neanderthalian who lived in the median Paleolith at the same time. Near Samarkand city, there was found a primitive stand-in lodging typical for hunters of late Paleolith. Villages of archaic people of the Stone and Bronze Ages were discovered in Karakalpakistan desert in 1937. As for ancient animals, most species were noticed in desolated areas in waste lands of Turkministan, Kazahstan, and Khorezm. Among remains were skeltons of mammoth, horses, bulls, deers, beavers, as well as many other species belonging to that time. Central Asian territory was quite adaptable for people in settling down on account of suitable natural circumstances, it is indicated by numerous remnants excavated in Kizil-Kum and Kora-Kum deserts, especially ancient shelters and graves.
As indicated by remaining parts, it appears obvious that the basic occupation of the general population living in the median Paleolith was hunting. They chased wild saigas, badgers, ground scquirrels, and predatory animals. Aside from hunting, people practiced collective gathering of different berries, root-crops, fruits, stems, etc. Their general achievement was utilizing the fire. Inside the shelters there could be seen stony hearthes. Most of the implements of that time were carved from stones, apparently, by splitting off chalk-rocks and ball-jasper with flintstones. Among the items were stony bowls, thimbles, scraping utilities and hatchets. Moreover, timbered and made of bone things were used simulteneously. The walls of the caverns were scrawled with scratches and there were bent skeletons in graves encompassed by goat hornings, as vindication of intellectual growth. According to all the discoveries such as nomadic villages in Samarkand city, hieroglyphs in Sherabad, Madjaiskaya cavern in Baisun rigeon, and in many parts of Uzbekistan, we can surely say that they are all typical for the Stony Age. That was the period of living standard improvement, because of invention of primal household appliances: hammers, various scratchers, knives and so on. As a result of necessity in awls and needles to stitch garments from animal fells, people had to use all available materials, such as bones or hoofs. Arrowheads came around simultaneously with bows and arrows. A dozen of fishhooks clearify that in Surhandarya region and not far from Tashkent Canal there were already settlements, in which fishing was an ussual activity. In Zareut-Say ravine in Sherobad area there are a plenty of ideographs portraying human shapes.
The latest Stone era is characterized by substantial agricultural development, progress in craftsmanship, particularly ceramic crockery and garment-stitching. Countless excavations enable to realize the vastitude of human functional activity. For example, heated dishes near Amudaria river, down the Ungus stream, or artworks found in the several parts of Kora-Kum desert, in the hollow of Surhandaria vicinity, in Tashkent outskirts and even in direction of Fergana valley. On every Uzbek tour, the attention is attracted by vital statistic of population exectly of this epoch.